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illness or injury to patients," agency spokeswoman Jennifer Rodriguez said prior to the panel's vote Thursday evening.

Black And Purple Nike Tennis Shoes

Black And Purple Nike Tennis Shoes

Black And Purple Nike Tennis Shoes

Black And Purple Nike Tennis Shoes

These types of devices have been around for decades, and there currently are four FDA approved models. Two similar devices are approved for use in smoking cessation and stopping nail biting, but those are not being considered for the ban.

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Proponents of the shock technique say it discourages aggressive or self injurious behavior. The students will stop punching themselves or others, for instance, to avoid being zapped, the thinking goes.

Studies have shown that negative reinforcement does not provide a long term solution to behavior problems in developmentally disabled people, Nygren said.

The FDA said that, as far as the agency is aware, the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Canton, Mass., is the only facility using the devices in Nike Shoes Online Uae

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Black And Purple Nike Tennis Shoes

shock that "feels like a hard pinch but is otherwise harmless and has no side effects," the center said in a statement.

The instruments in use at the Rotenberg Center lack FDA approval because they have been substantially modified from earlier models. One device "has an average output current that is almost three times that" of the FDA approved model, the agency said.

The zapping devices are used as an "aversion therapy" technique at a center in Massachusetts that serves children and adults with serious special needs.

Food and Drug Administration advisory panel has recommended banning the use of "electrical stimulation devices" to modify aggressive or self harming behavior in people with severe emotional problems or developmental disorders such as autism.

"The FDA has grown concerned that serious risks of using these devices may outweigh the benefits for patients with limited intellectual ability or developmental disabilities, and that they may pose an unreasonable and substantial risk of Nike Shoes Latest For Girls

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Black And Purple Nike Tennis Shoes

an attempt to change behavior, according to background material released prior to Thursday's vote.

The goal is to manage behaviors so these patients "can learn, and spend time with their family and friends," the statement said.

But the student told the FDA he received shocks "for things like noncompliance with staff direction, talking too much and being disruptive in class."

The Rotenberg Center stands by its policy. The devices, usually applied to the arms or legs, deliver a two second Nike Shoes Ladies Grey

´╗┐Ban Use of Behavior

"Without the treatment program at JRC, these children and adults Black And Purple Nike Tennis Shoes would be condemned to lives of pain by self inflicted mutilation, psychotropic drugs, isolation, restraint and institutionalization or even death," the statement from the center said.

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The center makes its own devices on site and does not offer them for sale.

Former Rotenberg students told FDA investigators they were burned by the devices, and felt anxiety, fear and depression.

Disability advocates have urged the FDA to ban these controversial tools. The United Nations has said use of electro shock devices by the Rotenberg Center constitutes a violation of the UN Convention Against Torture, according to the FDA.

It feels "like a thousand bees stinging you in the same place for a few seconds," said one former student, adding the device "is torture, in the plainest sense of the word."

"It's like putting a shock collar on a dog," said Margaret Nygren, executive director of the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. "It's designed for them not to be able to remove it. It's just degrading."

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